The Birth of Photography

Perceptions of the visible world were greatly altered by the invention of photography in the middle of the nineteenth century.

十九世纪中叶,摄影术的发明极大地改变了人们对可视世界的认知。

In particular, and quite logically, the art of painting was forever changed, though not always in the ways one might have expected.

尤其是它自然而然地使绘画艺术发生了永久性的改变,虽然并不总是以我们预期的方式。

The realistic and naturalistic painters of the mid- and late-nineteenth century were all intently aware of photography—as a thing to use, to learn from, and react to.

十九世纪中期与后期的现实主义和自然主义画家都高度关注摄影术,将其当做一门可以使用、借鉴而且要适应的技术。

Unlike most major inventions, photography had been long and impatiently awaited.

与其他重要的发明不同,摄影术姗姗来迟。

The images produced by the camera obscura(暗盒), a boxlike device that used a pinhole or lens to throw an image onto a ground-glass(毛玻璃) screen or a piece of white paper, were already familiar—the device had been much employed by topographical artists like the Italian painter Canaletto in his detailed views of the city of Venice.

其实当时针孔照相机已经为大家所熟识,它是一种使用小孔或透镜将影像投射到毛玻璃屏或一张白纸上的盒状设备,这种设备已经为很多地貌风景画家所用,像意大利画家卡纳莱托就用它详细记录了威尼斯城。

What was lacking was a way of giving such images permanent form.

真正缺少的是永久保存这些图像的方法。

This was finally achieved by Louis Daguerre (1787-1851), who perfected a way of fixing them on a silvered copper plate.

路易斯•达盖尔(1787-1851)最终做到了这点,他完善了将影像固定到镀银铜板上的方法。

His discovery, the “daguerreotype,” was announced in 1839.

他发明的“达盖尔照相法”在1839年公诸于世。

A second and very different process was patented by the British inventor William Henry Talbot (1800-1877) in 1841.

英国发明家威廉姆•亨利•塔尔博特(1800-1877)于1841年申请了另一种截然不同的照相法的专利。

Talbot’s “calotype” was the first negative-to-positive process and the direct ancestor of the modern photograph.

塔尔博特的“卡罗式摄影法”是第一种用负片洗印正片的方法,这种方法是现代照片的直接鼻祖。

The calotype was revolutionary in its use of chemically treated paper in which areas hit by light became dark in tone, producing a negative image.

卡罗式摄影法革命性地使用了化学处理的纸片,纸片上受到光照射的区域的色调会变暗于是产生了负像。

This “negative,” as Talbot called it, could then be used to print multiple positive images on another piece of treated paper.

这种被塔尔博特称之为“负片”的东西随后会被用于在另一张化学处理的纸片上洗印多张正像。

The two processes produced very different results.

这两种方法产生了极为不同的结果。

The daguerreotype was a unique image that reproduced what was in front of the camera lens inminute, unselective detail and could not be duplicated.

达盖尔照相法是复制照相机镜头前端微小的、非选择性的细节得到唯一一张影像,不可以加印。

The calotype could be made in series, and was thus the equivalent of an etching or an engraving.

而卡罗式摄影法可以洗出多张照片,因此相当于蚀刻术或雕刻术。

Its general effect was soft edged and tonal.

其整体的效果是轮廓和色调模糊。

One of the things that most impressed the original audience for photography was the idea of authenticity.

摄影术给最初接触它的观众留下的最深刻的印象之一是想法的真实性。

Nature now seemed able to speak for itself, with a minimum of interference.

现在大自然可以受到最小的干扰自己表达自己了。

The title Talbot chose for his book, The Pencil of Nature (the first part of which was published in 1844), reflected this feeling.

塔尔博特为他的书所选的书名《自然的画笔》(该书的第一部分发表于1844年)就体现了这种感触。

Artists were fascinated by photography because it offered a way of examining the world in much greater detail.

艺术家沉醉于摄影,因为摄影为他们提供了一种可以更加细致地审视这个世界的方法。

They were also afraid of it, because it seemed likely to make their own efforts unnecessary.

他们也很害怕摄影,因为摄影仿佛让他们的努力变得没有必要了。

 

Photography did indeed make certain kinds of painting obsolete—the daguerreotype virtually did away with the portrait miniature.

摄影术的确使某些绘画种类变得过时了,达盖尔照相法几乎把迷你肖像画逼到绝路。

It also made the whole business of making and owning images democratic.

它还使得整个制造业和拥有图像的产业变得平民化。

Portraiture, once a luxury for the privileged few, was suddenly well within the reach of many more people.

肖像这个一度只是少数权贵的奢侈品,突然就变得触手可及了。

 

In the long term, photography’s impact on the visual arts was far from simple.

从长远角度看,摄影术对视觉艺术的影响远远不是那么简单。

Because the medium was so prolific, in the sense that it was possible to produce a multitude of images very cheaply, it was soon treated as the poor relation of fine art, rather than its destinedsuccessor.

因为媒介很多,从这种意义上来说就有可能很廉价地生产一堆影像,因此摄影术很快就被当成是艺术品廉价的替代物,而不是注定的继任者。

Even those artists who were most dependent on photography became reluctant to admit that they made use of it, in case this compromised their professional standing.

即使是那些对摄影术最为依赖的艺术家也不愿意承认他们使用过摄影术,害怕这会影响到他们的专业地位。

 

The rapid technical development of photography—the introduction of lighter and simpler equipment, and of new emulsions(感光乳剂) that coated(覆盖,涂,镀膜) photographic plates, film, and paper and enabled images to be made at much faster speeds—had some unanticipated consequences.

摄影技术上的迅速发展——包括使用更轻便简单的仪器,在照相底片、胶卷和相纸上涂以新型感光乳剂以及加快成像速度——产生了一些意想不到的结果。

Scientific experiments made by photographers such as Eadweard Muybridge (1830-1904) and Etienne-Jules Marey (1830-1904) demonstrated that the movements of both humans and animals differed widely from the way they had been traditionally represented in art.

摄影师,例如爱德华德•麦布里奇(1830-1904)及艾蒂安•朱尔•马雷(1830-1904)进行的科学实验证明人类和动物的运动与我们通常在艺术品中表现的有巨大差异。

Artists, often reluctantly, were forced to accept the evidence provided by the camera.

艺术家往往是勉强地被强迫接受相机所提供的证据。

The new candid photography—unposed pictures that were made when the subjects were unaware that their pictures were being taken—confirmed these scientific results, and at the same time, thanks to the radical cropping (trimming) of images that the camera often imposed, suggested new compositional formats.

新出现的堪的派摄影(即拍摄对象不知情时抓拍的照片)证实了这些科学成果,同时,由于相机对影像进行的彻底裁剪(修剪),这些图像暗示了新的创作版式。

The accidental effects obtained by candid photographers were soon being copied by artists such as the French painter Degas.

堪的派摄影师们获得的这种意外效果很快被一些艺术家比如法国画家德加给学去了。

Sometime after midnight on February 8,1969, a large, bright meteor entered Earth’s atmosphere and broke into thousands of pieces, plummeted to the ground, and scattered over an area 50 miles long and 10 miles wide in the state of Chihuahua in Mexico.

在1969年2月8日子夜后的某一时刻,一颗巨大明亮的流星进入地球大气层,碎成无数的碎块,坠落到地面,散布在墨西哥奇瓦瓦州境内50英里长10英里宽的区域内。

The first meteorite from this fall was found in the village of Pueblito de Allende.

在皮柏里托•德•阿伦德村发现了这次坠落的第一块陨石。

Altogether, roughly two tons of meteorite fragments were recovered, all of which bear the name Allende for the location of the first discovery.

总共大约找到了2吨的陨星碎片,所有的碎片都是以首次发现的所在地阿伦德命名。

Individual specimens of Allende are covered with a black, glassy crust that formed when their exteriors melted as they were slowed by Earth’s atmosphere.

每块阿伦德碎片样本都覆盖着一层黑色的、玻璃样的熔壳,这层熔壳是在它们的外表面与地球大气层摩擦减速中熔化形成的。

When broken open, Allende stones are revealed to contain an assortment of small, distinctive objects, spherical or irregular in shape and embedded in a dark gray matrix (binding material), which were once constituents of the solar nebula—the interstellar cloud of gas and dust out of which our solar system was formed.

把阿伦德陨石破开,发现里面含有各种各样细小的、独特的物体,这些物体呈球状或者不规则状,嵌在深灰色的基质(结合物质)中,它们曾是太阳星云——形成太阳系的由气体和尘埃组成的星际云团的一部分。
The Allende meteorite is classified as a chondrite.

阿伦德陨星属于球粒陨石。

Chondrites take their name from the Greek word chondros—meaning “seed”—an allusion to their appearance as rocks containing tiny seeds.

球粒陨石的名字是源于希腊语中的单词“chondros”,意思是种子,这是指它们的外观看起来仿佛是镶嵌着细小的种子的岩石。

These seeds are actually chondrules: millimeter-sized melted droplets of silicate material that were cooled into spheres of glass and crystal.

这些种子实际上是陨石球粒:被冷却成玻璃球和水晶球的硅酸盐物质的毫米大小的熔融液滴。

A few chondrules contain grains that survived the melting event, so these enigmatic chondrules must have formed when compact masses(质密) of nebular dust were fused at high temperatures—approaching 1,700 degrees Celsius—and then cooled before these surviving grains could melt.

少数陨石球粒含有未遭熔化的颗粒,所以这些神秘的陨石球粒肯定是在接近1700摄氏度的高温下熔化的星云尘埃致密团块中形成的,随后这些团块在幸存的颗粒尚未熔化之前就冷却了。

Study of the textures of chondrules confirms that they cooled rather quickly, in times measured in minutes or hours, so the heating events that formed them must have been localized.

对陨石球粒质地的研究确认它们的确是以极快的速度冷却的,短则几分钟,长则数小时,所以形成陨石球粒的高温事件肯定是限于局部的。

It seems very unlikely that large portions of the nebula were heated to such extreme temperatures, and huge nebula areas could not possibly have lost heat so fast.

大块的星云升到极端高的温度是不大可能的,而且大块星云不可能散热这么快。

Chondrules must have been melted in small pockets of the nebula that were able to lose heat rapidly.

陨石球粒肯定是在星云内部能够快速散热的小型袋状结构处被熔化的。

The origin of these peculiar glassy spheres remains an enigma.

这些奇特的玻璃球的来源目前仍是未解之谜。
Equally perplexing constituents of Allende are the refractory inclusions: irregular white masses that tend to be larger than chondrules.

同样令人困惑的是阿伦德陨星的成分是耐高温的内含物:比陨石球粒要大些的不规则的白色团块。

They are composed of minerals uncommon on Earth, all rich in calcium, aluminum, andtitanium, the most refractory (resistant to melting) of the major elements in the nebula.

它们是由地球上罕见的矿物质组成的,富含钙、铝以及在星云中最耐高温的(耐熔化的)主要元素钛。

The same minerals that occur in refractory inclusions are believed to be the earliest-formed substances to have condensed out of the solar nebula.

这些出现在耐高温内含物中相同的矿物质被认为是在太阳星云中最早凝结而成的物质。

However, studies of the textures of inclusions reveal that the order in which the minerals appeared in the inclusions varies from inclusion to inclusion, and often does not match the theoretical condensation sequence for those metals.

然而,对内含物质地的研究发现不同的内含物中矿物质出现的顺序并不相同,往往与理论上这些金属的凝结序列不一致。

Chondrules and inclusions in Allende are held together by the chondrite matrix, a mixture of fine-grained, mostly silicate minerals that also includes grains of iron metal and iron sulfide.

阿伦德陨星里的陨石球粒和内含物是由球粒陨石基质结合到一起的,这是一种细粒混合物,主要是包括铁颗粒和硫化铁的硅酸盐矿物。

At one time it was thought that these matrix grains might be pristine nebular dust, the sort of stuff from which chondrules and inclusions were made.

人们一度认为这些基质颗粒可能是原始的星云尘埃,也就是形成陨石球粒和内含物的物质。

However, detailed studies of the chondrite matrix suggest that much of it, too, has been formed by condensation or melting in the nebula, although minute amounts of surviving interstellar dust are mixed with the processed materials.

不过对球粒陨石基质的详细研究表明多数基质的确是由星云的凝结和熔融形成的,尽管在这些被处理过的物质中还混有小部分残留的星际尘埃。

All these diverse constituents are aggregated together to form chondritic meteorites, like Allende, that have chemical compositions much like that of the Sun.

所有这些各种各样的组分被凝聚到一起形成了球粒陨石,就像与太阳具有很多相似化学组分的阿伦德陨星。

To compare the compositions of a meteorite and the Sun, it is necessary that we use ratios of elements rather than simply the abundances of atoms.

为了比较陨星和太阳的组分,我们需要比较元素的比率,而不是简单地比较原子的丰度 。

After all, the Sun has many more atoms of any element, say iron, than does a meteorite specimen, but the ratios of iron to silicon in the two kinds of matter might be comparable.

毕竟,太阳含有的任何一种元素的原子数都要比一块陨星样品含有的多,但是两者间的铁和硅的比率可能是具有可比性的。

The compositional similarity is striking.

结果发现它们在组成上具有惊人的相似性。

The major difference is that Allende is depleted in the most volatile elements, like hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and the noble gases, relative to the Sun.

主要的差别是相比太阳,阿伦德陨星失去了大部分的挥发性元素,例如氢、碳、氧、氮以及惰性气体。

These are the elements that tend to form gases even at very low temperatures.

这些元素即使是在很低的气温下都是气体状态。

We might think of chondrites as samples of distilled Sun, a sort of solar sludge(泥污,沉淀物)from which only gases have been removed.

我们或许会认为球粒陨石是“蒸馏后的太阳”的样本,一种除去气体后的太阳沉淀物。

Since practically all the solar system’s mass resides in the Sun, this similarity in chemistry means that chondrites have average solar system composition, except for the most volatile elements;

由于太阳系的质量几乎都集中于太阳,这种相似的化学组成意味着除了大部分的挥发性元素外,球粒陨石具有正常的太阳系组成;

they are truly lumps(肿块,傻大个) of nebular matter, probably similar in composition to the matter from which planets were assembled.

它们是真正星云物质的团块,很可能与形成行星的物质具有相似的组成。

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